Ramachandra Puri chastising Lord Chaitanya seeing ants in His room. The Monk developed an envy of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu after having had earlier committed an offense against his own Guru Madhavendra Puri.
[Bhakti Ananda Goswami’s Response to this article by Radhakrishnadas Brahmachari]
Thank You for this nice explanation of the difference between papa ‘sin’ and aparadha ‘offenses’. When I first saw this article by Radhakrishnadas Brahmachari, I thought of writing something about the issue of papa and aparadha in the World’s other anciently related Bhakti Yoga Traditions. However, since my Father and I have been struggling with a severe illness lately, I have not been able to do it. So here I will only note a few things that perhaps I will be able to write more about in the future.
First, the concept of sin as papa and papa-purusha sin-personified or the person/man of sin, can be historically traced back to the enemy of the Supreme Triune Godhead HERU-AUSU-ATUM of the Rhodian Cultus of Helios Meghistos Kouros / Krishna. The first High Civilization of Egypt was based on the worship of the Theophanies and Incarnations of this Trinity of Hari (Krishna), Vasudeva (Balarama-Vishnu) and Their All-Pervasive Atman / Paramatma. In North Egypt at Heliopolis the Hidden Lord of the Heart was called ATUM / ATON / ADON. Later in the South at Thebes the same Hidden Lord of the Heart was called ATEN before and during the famous Amarna Period.
The Indo-Europeans and Semites also worshiped this same Godhead as HELI-OS-ATOMOS (Atman = Being, WHO IS and the SELF Ousios, Atomos, Ontos, Autos etc.). The Semites called this Godhead ELI-YAHU-ADONyahu.
For thousands of years the enemy of this Godhead was known as SETU /KETU (Satan the sinful cause of CATA-bolism decay disease and death) ) and PAPA / sin. The hieroglyph for PAPA / sin in Egypt was a small deadly poisonous centipede type of insect. The meaning of the symbol is that the poison of sin can sicken and kill your whole body. Thus a very small and insignificant looking creature or bite/sting may look harmless, but the wise person knows to avoid the risk of the deadly sting of such envious life-destroying sinful creatures. Modern Egyptologists and Linguists have rendered this centipede-like ideogram for sin as PP and have transliterated it as APEP. Obviously this name of the envious destroyer of life and enemy of God and Humanity is PAPA.
A study of APEP / PAPA in the long history of the Heliopolitan Monotheism of Rhodes and Egypt reveals that this word eventually was associated with both the spiritual sins of the soul, like cruelty, pride, envy, hate and dis-honesty, and the venial sins of the body, like carnal lust, gluttony, intoxication and sloth etc. However in addition to the spiritual sins of Apep/Papa there was another kind of exclusively spiritual sinfulness associated with direct hatefulness towards God Ess and His-Her Devotees. This hatefulness often took the form of APOSTACY.
“Judas betrays Jesus with a kiss. Judas Iscariot, one of the Twelve Apostles, became an Apostate.” Judas küsst Jesus (Fresko in der Capella degli Scrovegni, Padua
Date 1304-1306, Hanover College)
“Stuart A. Wright, an American sociologist and author, asserts that apostasy is a unique phenomenon and a distinct type of religious defection, in which the apostate is a defector “who is aligned with an oppositional coalition in an effort to broaden the dispute, and embraces public claims-making activities to attack his or her former group.””
“CountriesSee also: Use of capital punishment by nation
Countries with death penalty for the crime of apostasy.In 2011, 20 countries across the globe prohibited its citizens from apostasy; in these countries, it is a criminal offense to abandon one’s faith to become atheist, or convert to another religion. All 20 of these countries were majority Islamic nations, of which 11 were in the Middle East. No country in the Americas or Europe has any law forbidding apostasy and restricting the freedom to convert to any religion. Furthermore, across the globe, no country with Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, agnostic or atheist majority had any criminal or civil laws forbidding or encouraging apostasy, or had laws restricting an individual’s right to convert from one religion to another.
The following are some nations that treat apostasy under their criminal laws.
Iran – illegal (death penalty)
Egypt – illegal (3 years’ imprisonment)
Pakistan – illegal (death penalty since 2007)
United Arab Emirates – illegal (3 years’ imprisonment, flogging)
Somalia – illegal (death penalty)
Afghanistan – illegal (death penalty, although the U.S. and other coalition members have put pressure that has prevented recent executions)
Saudi Arabia – illegal (death penalty, although there have been no recently reported executions)
Sudan – illegal (death penalty, although there have only been recent reports of torture, and not of execution)
Qatar – illegal (death penalty)
Yemen – illegal (death penalty)
Malaysia – illegal in five of 13 states (fine, imprisonment, and flogging)
Mauritania – illegal (death penalty if still apostate after 3 days)
Morocco – illegal to proselytise conversion (15 years’ imprisonment)
Jordan – possibly illegal (fine, jail, child custody loss, marriage annulment) although officials claim otherwise, convictions are recorded for apostasy
Oman – legal in criminal code, but according to the family code, a father can lose custody of his child
A few Islamic majority nations, not in the above list, prosecute apostasy even though they do not have apostasy laws, and only have blasphemy laws. In these nations, there is no general agreement or legal code to define “blasphemy”. The lack of definition and legal vagueness has been used to include apostasy as a form of blasphemy. For example, in Indonesia, the phrase used in the Blasphemy Law is penyalahgunaan dan/atau penodaan agama, meaning “to misuse or disgrace a religion”. Persons accused of blasphemy have included murtad (apostate), kafir (non-Muslim/unbeliever), aliran sesat (deviant group), sesat (deviant), or aliran kepercayaan (mystical believers). Indonesia has invoked blasphemy laws to address crimes of riddah (apostasy); zandaqah (heresy); nifaq (hypocrisy); and kufr (unbelief). Islamic activists have demanded, and state prosecutors have proposed, prison sentences to death as punishment for such crimes.”
ChristianityMain article: Apostasy in Christianity
See also: Apostata capiendo and Backslide
The Christian understanding of apostasy is “a willful falling away from, or rebellion against, Christian truth. Apostasy is the rejection of Christ by one who has been a Christian …”, though many believe that biblically this is impossible (‘once saved, forever saved’). “Apostasy is the antonym of conversion; it is deconversion.” The Greek noun apostasia (rebellion, abandonment, state of apostasy, defection) is found only twice in the New Testament (Acts 21:21; 2 Thessalonians 2:3). However, “the concept of apostasy is found throughout Scripture.” The Dictionary of Biblical Imagery states that “There are at least four distinct images in Scripture of the concept of apostasy. All connote an intentional defection from the faith.” These images are: Rebellion; Turning Away; Falling Away; Adultery.
This concept of actual APO-state OPPOsition-to, denial-of, envy-of and hatred-for the Primal Human God Ess of RHODES is the essence of the OFFEnsive-ness that is contained in the concept of the spiritual sinfulness of being an apostate. To be against the Primal God Ess of Rhodes is to be APO-RHODA / APA-RADHA. So to clarify, a common venial sin of the flesh may be due to a mere physical weakness, immaturity, lack of self control, lack of proper education or training/discipline, but a spiritual sin such as envy and hatred of God and other people is not a mere sin of the flesh, it is directly offensive-ness to the Supreme God Ess of Rhodes, it is APO-Rhoda / Apa-Radha. .
Catholic Moral (or Ascetic) Theology makes a clear distinction between these two basic kinds of sin. The merely physical sins of the weak flesh, the body, are called venial sins. The more serious and soul-deadly sins of the mind, heart and spirit are called the deadly or mortal sins. So the contrast made between papa/sin and aparadha as offenses in the article above is very interesting from the point of my comparative ancient Bhakti Tradition studies.