HOW GEOGRAPHY IS IMPORTANT IN THESE CONNECTIONS … CENTERS OF VAISHNAVISM WERE ALSO CENTERS OF PURE LAND BUDDHISM AND ‘HELIOPOLITAN’ (AND SERAPEAN-ALEXANDRIAN) JUDAISM
At various times over thousands of years, the worshipers of the One True God in different regions of the World were in contact with each other and formed religio-political, trade and military alliances, federations or leagues of ‘Asyla’. Thus with the Varna-Ashram-Dharma of these Polieus / Pharaoh / Purusha-centric Theocratic Polis City-States with their Sacramental Social Order, the development of High Civilization was possible. I have studied these Leagues of Devotees through the course of centuries, identifying via abundant interdisciplinary evidence the various peoples who belonged to many different alliances. From Age to Age these Heliopolitan Asyla Federations formed and re-formed creating the so-called Axial Age and other Golden or Classical Ages of the various High Civilizations. How benevolent the age was depended on the Sattvic, Rajarshic or Tamasic nature and realization of the Kings, Queens or other rulers. This map shows Greater North West India after the Conquest of Alexander the Great. There are many more details about it and the Biblical Story of Kalki, Krishna and Balarama (chastising Heliodorus) in Their Great Temple in Jerusalem as well.
I have written about the Heliopolitan Asyla Federations for more than 40 years. Due to the lack of Classical Education, or interest in the Classical Greek era, in modern Western Civilization, people do not now what an Asyla or an Asyla Federation, Alliance or League was. I frequently have mentioned the ancient Greek-related international Heliopolitan Federations of Asyla. The study of Temples of Asyla or Sanctuary, Manumission and Cities of Refuge is a very specialized field Mediterranean Regional History. I have delved deeply into it because of my interest in the Supreme Lord’s hatred of chattel slavery, and how His People were the Liberators of the ancient World! Here is something about the Temple as an Asylum or Sanctuary and how the larger sanctified areas around a Sanctuary Temple might also used as a Dharmashalla to protect the cattle of refugees in the Sanctuary.
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New approaches Edited by Nanno Marinatos and Robin Hägg
What were Greek sanctuaries? A synthesis Nanno Marinatos
See page 182
SANCTUARIES AS PLACES OF REFUGE
One of the most important functions of sanctuaries was to provide shelter to political refugees. Sinn andSchumacher both discuss this issue in the present volume (pp. 88–109 and pp. 62–87). They point out thatthe location of certain extra-urban cult sites was ideal for
or refuge sites. Let us just mention thosethat were situated on promontories or near the sea: the Poseidon sanctuaries at Tainaron and Geraistos, theHeraion at Perachora, the sanctuary at Sounion. Such places would be accessible both by land or sea, bymariners as well as land-travellers.It is not to be assumed, of course, that such sanctuaries were specifically founded as
. Rather, weshould suppose that in time certain sites became ideal because of their location. Schumacher stresses thatTainaron fulfilled the role of asylum for helots. In this case, the sanctuary assumes a function related to aspecific socio-political situation. At any rate, the presence of
was necessitated by the constant war andfactionalism which so characterized Greek culture. A similar function was fulfilled by monasteries in theMiddle Ages.The spatial organization of sanctuaries lends itself to usage by refugees and campers. Sinn divides thespace into two zones. The narrower one is the traditional
situated around altar and temple. Thesecond zone is much wider but it too is sacred. Sinn calls it ‘cult-meadow’; it is in this area that feastingtook place but refugees could also camp if necessary. Sanctuaries with large ‘cult-meadows’ and aprominent geographic location made ideal
. Examples are Bassae, Ithome, Maleatas and Thermos inAetolia. In the last site, argues Sinn, the inhabitants could even bring and protect their livestock. Thesubstantial provisions for water-supplies at the sanctuary of Hera at Perachora can be accounted for if thesite was used by refugees during long periods of time.
SANCTUARIES AS CULTURAL CENTRES
Where there is a gathering of people there is also a potential market for new art forms. One should notunderestimate the role of festivals and ritual activities in sanctuaries as stimuli for new art forms. I will notspeak here about how Attic drama evolved in the context of festivals under the patronage of thePeisistratids. Nor will I dwell on the choruses and musical
which were integral part of festivals;these are well-known facts discussed by many learned scholars. It is worth noting, however, that evenHerodotus mentions choruses performing in honour of heroes: ‘normally, the tragic chorus belongs to theworship of Dionysus; but in Sicyon it was not so—it was performed in honour of Adrastus, treating his life-story and sufferings.’ (Herodotus 5.71, transl. by A.de Selincourt.) In short, sanctuaries provided an idealsetting for performance either within their own theatres or perhaps within the
.As mentioned above, sanctuaries were ideal arenas for the display of sculpture, painting, architecture andthe performing arts. Artists were inspired by their peers and regional styles cross-fertilized each other.It is thus obvious that Greek sanctuaries were not mere places of worship and pilgrimage butmultidimensional institutions which served the needs of their communities and the needs of the Greek city-state as a whole. The social particularities created a symbiotic relationship between religion and state whichwe are only now beginning to fully understand.
1R.A.Tomlinson, ‘Two notes on possible
182WHAT WERE GREEK SANCTUARIES?
First published in 1993by Routledge11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EESimultaneously published in the USA and Canadaby Routledge29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001First published in paperback 1995 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis GroupThis edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go towww.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”This collection © 1993 Routledge; individual chapters © 1993individual contributorsAll rights reserved. No part of this book maybe reprinted orreproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic,mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,including photocopying and recording, or in any informationstorage or retrieval system, without permission in writing fromthe publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataGreek Sanctuaries; New ApproachesI. Marinatos, Nanno II. Hägg, Robin292.3 Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication DataGreek sanctuaries: new approaches/edited byNannon Marinatos and Robin Hägg.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references.1. Shrines—Greece. 2. Temples, Greek—Greece. 3. Greece—Religion. I. Mirantos, Nannon II. Hägg, RobinBL795.S47G74 1993292.3′5′0938–dc20 93–30812ISBN 0-203-43270-3 Master e-book ISBNISBN 0-203-74094-7 (Adobe eReader Format)ISBN 0-415-05384-6 (Print Edition)ISBN 0-415-12536-7 (pbk)